MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING USING DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS: EXAMPLES FROM CHILE AND ANTARCTICA
ARATA, J1 , SQUEO, FRANCISCO2 , GAYMER, CARLOS3 , 1 ASESORIA PROCIEN INACH.2 Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de La Serena.3 Departamento de Biología Marina Universidad Católica del Norte.
The Antarctic continent is the most isolated continent; yet, it is subject to rapid changes due to anthropogenic impacts such as ozone depletion and climate change. Introduction of alien species and increasing economic uses such as fisheries and tourism are also a matter of concern. The signing of the Antarctic Treaty first and the Madrid Protocol later, which seeks the ‘comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems’, suggest a clear framework for its conservation. However, recent analyses suggest that current system of protection may not be sufficient, with protected areas needing revision, as they are not inclusive of all habitats or communities and are not as large as to provide resilience to ongoing changes derived from global warming. This diagnosis is even more so for the marine realm. Increasing pressures from human activities requires a change in conservation paradigm, from an approach case-by-case towards a holistic one. Here we illustrate the use of a marine spatial conservation planning process for identifying important areas for ecosystem conservation for the Maritime Antarctica. Results have significance for the resilience of the marine ecosystem, mainly the krill-based ecosystem, under climate change and fisheries.
A GONDWANAN PERSPECTIVE FOR RESEARCH IN ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY
ARMESTO, JUAN J.1 , SEGOVIA, RICARDO2 , 1 Departamento de Ecología, Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.2 Departamento de Ecología, Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.
Since the inception of modern biogeography and ecology in the late 19th century, theoretical interpretation of diversity and distribution patterns was strongly influenced by concepts derived from the seminal works of Darwin, Wallace and later Darlington and Simpson. Under this perspective, centers of origin for most lineages and community assembly processes were driven by evolutionary divergence and migration from the larger northern continents. This view, which emphasizes the notions of competitive displacement and dispersal rather than diversification and fragmentation of biotas, dominated the first half of the 20th century, despite early alternative views of Earth history based on the distribution of austral floras (Hooker, Skottsberg) and criticism of the ‘centers of origin’ concept from a South American perspective. The northcentric view was also challenged by geological evidence of the breakup of the ancient southern continent of Gondwana, where much diversification of ancestral biotas also took place. Contemporary analyses of distribution patterns of living and fossil taxa, and molecular evidence of evolutionary radiations of major lineages point to the need for a Gondwanan-based perspective to ecology and biogeography. We propose a re-assessment of altitudinal and latitudinal diversity gradients in relation to new models of tropical and extra-tropical diversification processes in South America. These models highlight the pivotal role for the Antarctic cradle in the history of South American lineages. A biogeographic synthesis from a southern perspective is presently growing under the stimulus of new evidence and discussions at the Southern Connection meetings since the 1990s.
(Sponsored by PFB-23 (CONICYT), P05-002 (ICM) CONICYT Postdoctoral Fellowship (RS))
CHEMICAL ECOLOGY OF ESCHSCHOLZIA CALIFORNICA: COMPARING ALKALOID CONTENT BETWEEN NATIVE AND INVADED RANGES
ARREDONDO-NÚÑEZ, A1 , CHRISTEN, PHILIPPE2 , CRETTON, SYLVIAN3 , TAPIA, JORGE4 , MUÑOZ, ORLANDO4 , BUSTAMANTE, RAMIRO1 , 1 Laboratorio Ecología Terrestre, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile.2 Group of Pharmacognosy, Section des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, University of Geneva.3 Group of Pharmacognosy University of Geneva.4 Química, Ciencias, Universidad de Chile.
Invasive plants can generate significant impacts on biodiversity. The understanding what determine their invasiveness is a central issue in Ecology. When one exotic plant arrives to a new range, they are chemically defended against native predators. If they cannot be recognized by native predators, chemical defenses are no longer adaptive. Then, they can allocate energy to other functions. These responses can vary among different parts of plants as herbivores can be selective. We have worked in the chemical ecology of Eschscholzia californica and invasive plant of Central Chile. We examined total alkaloid content of different plant parts (leaves, shoot and root), comparing native (California) and invasive populations (Central Chile). We found non-significant alkaloid differences between native and invasive populations. However, we found significant differences among populations of Central Chile. Herbivory was almost absent in leaves but some damage can be observed in the flowers. Roots had the highest alkaloid content both in the native and in the invaded range. The absence of regional differences (native vs invaded) suggest that alkaloid concentration is a constitutive defense. Thus, alkaloid content is a conserved trait that does not change irrespective of herbivory pressure.
(Sponsored by the Iniciativa Científica Milenio (P05-002))
THE HIGH ELEVATION FLORA OF THE SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICAN ANDES: RECENT, RICH, AND AT RISK UNDER CLIMATE CHANGE
ARROYO, MARY T.K.1 , Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad (IEB), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
Historical records show high altitude species can escape from global warming by migrating into cooler conditions. However, in seeking cooler conditions, the amount of suitable habitat available for many species could become reduced on account of the geometry of mountainous terrain, the orientation and degree of isolation of mountain ranges and their peaks, and regional changes in precipitation. High elevation, abovetreeline or bioclimatically-equivalent habitats in the north-south trending South American Andes, found at progressively higher altitudes toward the lower latitudes, support a rich flora. Dated phylogenies and the nested positions of some genera within larger clades indicate a fairly recent origin for many clades. An ongoing distributional modelling effort employing Ensemble Forecasting (BIOMOD), two climate models and two climate change scenarios on a pool of high altitude species (presently >300) from the southern Andes (27°-56°S), predicts there will be both winners and losers, but far more losers, even when unlimited dispersal capacity is assumed and a more conservative temperature increase is considered. Whether the severe habitat loss predicted for many species by these models becomes fully manifest will depend on the ability of high altitude species to hold on at the trailing edge and reach favorable thermal microsites within their present altitudinal ranges. Better knowledge of the responses of individual species at the trailing edge and of establishment success at the leading edge is critical to our understanding of the impacts of global warming on high altitude species in the southern Andes.
(Sponsored by Fondecyt 1140541, ICM-MINECON P05-002 IEB, PBF-23, CONICYT. Diego Alarcón is gratefully acknowledged for his collaboration with the modelling work)
SPATIAL PATTERNS OF PHYLOGENETIC DIVERSITY IN NATIVE TREES SPECIES AND CONSERVATION EFFORT IN THE CHILEAN BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOT
ARROYO, MARY T.K.1 , PINOCHET, CONSTANZA1 , JARA-ARANCIO, PAOLA1 , FAITH, DANIEL2 , 1 Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad (IEB), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.2 Australian National Museum Sydney, Australia.
Phylogenetic diversity (PD) provides a quantitative measure of evolutionary potential. PD also measures “option value” – the value of diversity in providing future benefits for humans. PD is calculated on a phylogeny as the sum of the branch-lengths of the taxa of interest starting at the root of the phylogeny. Conservation of PD option value focusses on total PD of a region, but conservation of evolutionary potential will focus on maintaining high PD locally. State protected areas in the Chilean biodiversity hotspot are few. We analyzed the spatial distribution of PD for trees and assessed the degree of protection of high PD locations throughout the hotspot. A phylogeny based on rbcl was constructed for tree species using sequences obtained in the laboratory and from GenBank. PD was measured for the full set of trees in each 0.5 x 0.5 degree square. Species richness and generic richness across the grid were obtained from optimized occurrence data obtained from herbarium records, using a fine-scale vegetation scheme. PD, species richness and generic richness are concentrated between 34° to 41°S mainly in the coastal range, with some outstanding pockets in the central valley and southern part of the Andes. PD was strongly correlated with species richness and generic richness. The distribution of protected areas bears little relationship to the locations having highest PD levels at the 0.5 x 0.5 ° square scale. Major disparities are seen in the Coast Range.
(Sponsored by ICM-MINECON P05-002 IEB, PBF-23, CONICYT)
RESOURCE BOTTLENECKS EXACERBATE GONDWANA SPECIES’ VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE
BARNARD, P1 , MARON, MARTINE2 (Co-conveners) 1South African National Biodiversity Institute, Private Bag X7, Claremont 7735, South Africa, and the Percy Fitzpatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa, 2 The University of Queensland, Landscape Ecology and Conservation Group, School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.
We propose a break from the symposium structure of Southern Connection by holding an interactive workshop on the nature and importance of bottlenecks. Resource bottlenecks for species – periods of severe restriction in resource availability – are important and little-understood mechanisms through which climate change affects biodiversity. Triggered by increased climate variability and extreme climate events, they can tip species into population declines which precipitate local extinction. Our workshop, building on a recent global review but highlighting Gondwana examples, focuses on global change processes that exacerbate bottlenecks and their effects on animal populations, and how adaptation responses can help buffer the impacts. We outline a framework of factors that increase species’ vulnerability to climate-induced spatial/ temporal bottlenecks in increasingly variable habitats, focusing on the southern hemisphere. Increases in the frequency, severity and/or duration of extreme climate events can trigger bottlenecks that severely limit populations and can exacerbate other human-induced pressures, such as land use change. These may become more frequent and severe, with potentially nonlinear increases in impact. More effective conservation responses include managing protected area networks for complementarity in spatial/ temporal resources.
ON THE EDGE: LONG-TERM AND LARGE-SCALE DATA TO ESTIMATE VULNERABILITY OF AFRICA’S SOUTHERNMOST ENDEMICS
BARNARD, PHOEBE1,2, LEE, ALAN1,2, 1 Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, FUniversity of Cape Town.2 Climate Change BioAdaptation, Kirstenbosch Research Centre, South African National Biodiversity Institute.
Species at the southern edges of Gondwana’s major continents share the same kinds of vulnerabilities to extinction as those at the polar edges of northern continents, but with the added problem of intense human settlement in many areas. In Africa, the fynbos global biodiversity hotspot of South Africa is the world’s smallest and richest floral kingdom, with a Mediterranean-type winter rainfall-summer drought system. Six endemic passerines and one endemic quail, which evolved under mostly cool, moist conditions, face multiple global change drivers which jeopardize their future survival along the southern tip of the continent. These drivers include climate change (including changing rainfall seasonality and frontal systems; changing fire regimes and increasing CO2-driven woody encroachment), land use change (urbanization, agricultural transformation) and biotic invasion. My team has been using the long-term, large-scale citizen science datasets of South Africa, as well as detailed survey, behavioural and epidemiology studies as a basis for climate range modelling, population density and viability assessment. Several of the fynbos endemics show evidence of intolerance to warming temperatures in experimental chamber experiments, and red data list assessment is highlighting increasing concern about their conservation status.
EVALUATING THE INFLUENCE OF TECTONICS ON THE GENETIC LINEAGE DISTRIBUTION OF NOTHOFAGUS IN CONTRASTING AREAS OF THE PATAGONIAN ANDES
BECHIS, FLORENCIA1 , ACOSTA, CRISTINA2 , MATHIASEN, PAULA3 , PREMOLI, ANDREA3 , THOMSON, STUART4 , RAMOS, VICTOR5 , 1 IIDyPCa CONICET - Universidad Nacional de Rio Negro.2 IMBIV CONICET - Universidad Nacional de Cordoba.3 Laboratorio Ecotono, INIBIOMA CONICET - Universidad Nacional del Comahue.4 Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona.5 IDEAN CONICET - Universidad de Buenos Aires.
The Northern and Southern Patagonian Andes show important differences regarding their geological evolution during the Cenozoic Era, which began 66 million years ago. These include important variations in the altitude, style and timing of the mountains’ uplift, and the Pacific vs. Atlantic origin of marine connections, among others. Coincidentally, the geographic distribution of the genetic lineages and haplotypes found for all species within the genus Nothofagus also show important variations between the southern and northern sectors of the Patagonian Andes. Molecular dating has revealed that divergences of the ancestral lineages took place in different times during the Cenozoic associated with paleogeographic changes related to geologic and climatic factors. These previous studies proved that there is a strong link between the tectonic and biological evolution in Patagonia. In this contribution, we outline major latitudinal differences in the geologic evolution of the Patagonian Andes in order to identify key paleogeographic elements that could have acted as barriers, filters or corridors for the dispersion and divergence of Nothofagus species during the Cenozoic. Furthermore, we explore if the available genetic data could help to evaluate competing geological hypotheses, including the location of the Atlantic-Pacific marine connections, or the timing of the Andean uplift. We will particularly focus on the segment between 41° and 42°S, where a complete set of previous and new ages obtained from different techniques (apatite fission track thermochronology and U-Pb LA-ICPMS geochronology) allows a precise dating of the tectonic and paleogeographic evolution, favoring its comparison and integration with the genetic data.
ECOLOGY, EDUCATION, AND CONSERVATION IN TROPICAL AND SUB-ANTARCTIC PROTECTED AREAS OF SOUTH AMERICA
BERCHEZ, F1 , CONTADOR, T.2 , MASSARDO, F2 , GHILARDI-LOPES , N3 , SCHWINDT, E4 , LEITE, K5 , CABALLERO, P6 , RENDOLL, J6 , OJEDA, J7 , MANSILLA, A8 , KENNEDY, J9 , JIMÉNEZ , J10, ROZZI, R10, 1 Botânica, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.2 Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Parque Etnobotánico Omora, Universidad de Magallanes, Chile.3 Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, SP, Brazil.4 Grupo de Ecología em Ambientes Costeros Centro Nacional Patagónico (CENPAT, CONICET), Argentina.5 Estação Ecológica Tupinambás ICMBio, Brazil.6 Parque Etnobotánico Omora Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Chile.7 Laboratorio de Macroalgas Antárticas y Subantárticas, Universidad de Magallanes, Chile.8 Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Laboratorio de Macroalgas Antárticas y Subantárticas, Universidad de Magallanes, Chile.9 Departament of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, USA.10Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Parque Etnobotánico Omora, Universidad de Magallanes, Chile and University of North Texas, USA.
South American coastal habitats include a wide range of terrestrial, freshwater, and benthic ecosystems, many of which are unique and constitute hotspots of biodiversity. Biosphere reserves, and other categories of protected areas (PA), instituted mostly during the second half of the 20th Century, are considered a key management tool to conserve regional biodiversity. Educational actions to promote changes in basic values, principles, and attitudes, although considered as a main objective for PAs, frequently have a poor conceptual basis. Together with the evaluation of their effectiveness by long-term, site-based socioecological research, efforts should be direct towards a holistic approach, with the development and testing of environmental practices that integrate ecology, economy, ethics, and conflict resolutions on the different uses of biodiversity. However, ecological long-term studies, socio-economic long-term evaluation, and the integration of education and ethics are still incipient. With the recent creation of some independent networks in different South American countries, mainly related to the assessment of biological communities, concern is related to (1) sharing methodologies and data to facilitate comparative and integrated continental analyses, and (2) integrating social components, including not only economic but also ethical values and participatory approaches. Toward this aim, the research network based at Omora Park in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile, has developed the Field Environmental Philosophy methodological approach, which has been adapted to research, educational, and conservation programs in protected areas of other regions of the world. ReBentos Network and CNPq.